Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of society.

Knowledge skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in

school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question to

investigate and to think independently.

Globalisation in every sphere of society have important implications for education. We are witnessing the

increasing commercialisation of education. We need to be vigilant about the pressures to commodify schools and

the application of market-related concepts to schools and school quality. The increasingly competitive

environment into which schools are being drawn and the aspirations of parents place a tremendous burden of

stress and anxiety on children, including the very young to the detriment of their personal growth and

development, and thus hamper the joy of learning.


The aims of education simultaneously reflect the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting

values and the immediate concerns of a community as well as broad human ideals. At any given time and place

they can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and


An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social

space can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous

process of deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Alongside is the

development of theories that children have about the natural and social worlds, including themselves in relation

to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are, the relationships between

causes and effects, and the bases for decisions and acting. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part

of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and



As children's metacognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of

regulating their own learning.

'We're drowning in information and starving for knowledge'

-Rutherford D. Rogers



Characteristics of learning:

All children are naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning.

Making meaning and developing the capacity for abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most

important aspects of learning.

Children learn in a variety of ways-through experience, making and doing things, experimentation,

reading, discussion, asking, listening, thinking and reflecting, and expressing oneself in speech,

movement or writing-both individually and with others. They require opportunities of all these kinds in

the course of their development.


Teaching something before the child is cognitively ready takes away from real learning. Children may

'remember' many facts but they may not understand them or be able to relate them to the world around


Learning takes place both within school and outside school. Learning is enriched if the two arenas

interact with each other. Art and work provide opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in tacit and

aesthetic components. Such experiences are essential to be learnt through direct experience, and

integrated into life.


Learning must be paced so that it allows learners to engage with concepts and deepen understanding,

rather than remembering only to forget after examinations. At the same time learning must provide

variety and challenge, and be interesting and engaging. Boredom is a sign that the task may have become

mechanically repetitive for the child and of little cognitive value.

Learning can take place with or without mediation. In the case of the latter, the social context and

interactions, especially with those who are capable, provide avenues for learners to work at cognitive

levels above their own.

Examinations are an indispensable part of the educational process as some form of assessment is necessary to

determine the effectiveness of teaching learning processes and their internalization by learners. Various

Commissions and Committees have felt the need for examination reforms.  The Hunter Commission (1882),

Calcutta University Commission or Sadler Commission (1917-1919), Hartog Committee Report (1929), the

Report of Central Advisory Board / Sargeant Plan (1944), Secondary Education Commission / Mudaliar

Commission (1952-53) have all made recommendations regarding reducing emphasis on external examination

and encouraging internal assessment through Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation.


This aspect has been strongly taken care of in the National Policy on Education- 1986 which states that

“Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of evaluation,

spread over the total span of instructional time” {8.24 (iii)}.


Report on the Committee for Review of NPE-1986-recommendation brought out by Government of India in

1991 lays down norms for “continuous comprehensive internal evaluation and suggests safeguards against abuse of this

evaluation system”{268(iv)}.


Report on the CABE Committee on Policy brought out by MHRD, Govt. of India in January, 1992 has also

referred to the provisions of NPE with regard to evaluation process and examination reforms and also suggested

'continuous and comprehensive internal evaluation of the scholastic and non-scholastic achievement of the

students' (16.8).

The need for Continuous and Comprehensive School-based Evaluation has been reiterated over the last few

decades. The Kothari Commission report (1966) observed, 'On the completion of the course, at the end of the lower or

higher secondary stage, the student should receive a certificate from the school also giving the record of his internal

assessment as contained in his cumulative record. This certificate may be attached to that given by the Board in connection

with the external examination…' (9.81). It further adds, 'This internal assessment or evaluation conducted by the schools

is of greater significance and should be given increasing importance. It should be comprehensive, evaluating all those

aspects of students' growth that are measured by the external examination and also those personality traits, interests and

attitudes which cannot be assessed by it.'  (9.84).


The Report of the Task Force on the Role and status of the Board of Secondary Education (1997) observed: In our

scheme of things, it is the School Boards which are expected to play the central role in the academic renovation of the school

system. In other words, leadership has to come from the Board. Once the Boards get committed to this vital and

supplementary system of evaluation and push it vigorously, this innovation will come to be accepted by more and

more schools.


Remodelling of School Education Boards – a report on the Task Force on the role and the status of Boards of

Secondary Education (1997) has explained the philosophy of CCE (4.39).   It further states that 'no agency other

than the Boards should promote CCE and that is why it is sought to be emphasized that the Boards have to play a pioneering

role in this regard'(4.40).

“Learning without Burden”- a Report of the National Advisory Committee appointed by the Ministry of Human

Resource Development, Department of Education, Govt. of India has stated that:

“ Board examination, taken at the end of Class X and XII, have remained rigid, bureaucratic, and essentially


Accordingly, National Curriculum Framework - 2005 (NCF-05) proposing Examination Reforms stated -

“Indeed, boards should consider, as a long-term measure, making the Class X examination optional, thus permitting

students continuing in the same school (and who do not need a board certificate) to take an internal school examination



“Indeed, it is our view that the tenth grade exam be made optional forthwith.  Tenth-graders who intend continuing in the

eleventh grade at the same school and do not need the Board certificate for any immediate purpose, should be free to take a

school-conducted exam instead of the Board exam.”


Evaluation is goal directed, and educational outcomes are judged in terms of goal attainment. Every educational

programme should aim for the all round development of the personality of the child. Therefore, the learning

experiences provided in the school should contribute toward the achievement of the desired goals. A teacher,

while deciding about the related learning experience should see both scholastic and co-scholastic outcomes as

desirable behavioural outcomes of that programme.


The scope of evaluation in schools extends to almost all the areas of learners' personality development. It should

include both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, i.e. it should be comprehensive in nature. This is in line with the

goals of education. Evaluation is continuous and reveals the strengths and weaknesses of learners more

frequently, so that the learners have better opportunity to understand and improve themselves. It also provides

feedback to the teachers for modifying their teaching strategies.

Obviously, the efforts of CBSE to provide a leadership and pioneering role in implementing CCE is a major

breakthrough which attempts to elevate the status of the schools as equal partners of the Board in assessing the

attainment levels of the learner for public consumption through a separate independent certificate issued by the

schools under the directive of the Board.

Place of Evaluation in the Curriculum

A curriculum is what constitutes a total teaching-learning program composed of overall aims, syllabus, materials,

methods and assessment. In short it provides a framework of knowledge and capabilities, seen as appropriate to a

particular level.  The syllabus provides a statement of purpose, means and standards against which one can check

the effectiveness of the program and the progress made by the learners.   Evaluation not only measures the

progress and achievement of the learners but also the effectiveness of the teaching materials and methods used for

transaction.  Hence evaluation should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twin purpose of effective

delivery and further improvement in the teaching learning process.

Understood properly, evaluation or assessment will not be perceived as something administered by the teachers

and taken by the learners on the conclusion of a period of learning.  When evaluation is seen as an end of the

learning exercise, both the teachers and the learners will tend to keep it outside the teaching-learning process,

rendering assessment broadly irrelevant and alien to the curriculum.  Further such a perception associates anxiety

and stress with evaluation for learners.  On the contrary, if evaluation is seen as an integral part built into the

teaching learning process; it will become continuous like both teaching and learning.   When evaluation is

subsumed into teaching learning, learners will not perceive tests and examination with fear. CCE will lead to

diagnosis, remediation and enhancement of learning.

Evaluation results: Fundamental to effective teaching and learning

Success in education is determined by the extent to which the learning  objectives are realized. The progress

towards attainment of objectives has to be assessed and evaluated for otherwise, we will not know where we are


One of the main purposes of evaluation at the school stage is to help the learner's improve their achievement in

scholastic areas  and to develop Life Skills and attitudes with reference to the larger context and canvas of life.

Further, in NPE (1986) it has been emphasized that at the school level the evaluation should be formative or

developmental in nature because at this stage child is in the formative stage of learning and thus the emphasis

should be on improvement of learning.

What is `Continuous' and `Comprehensive' Evaluation ?

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system of school-based evaluation of

students that covers all aspects of students development.

It is a developmental process of assessment which emphasizes on two fold objectives. These objectives are

continuity in evaluation and assessment of broad based learning and behaviourial outcomes on the other.

In this scheme the term `continuous' is meant to emphasise that evaluation of identified aspects of students

`growth and development' is a continuous process rather than an event, built into the total teaching-learning

process and spread over the entire span of academic session.  It means regularity of assessment, frequency of unit

testing, diagnosis of learning gaps, use of corrective measures, retesting and feedback of evidence to teachers and

students for their self evaluation.

The second term `comprehensive'  means that the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-

scholastic aspects of students' growth and development. Since abilities, attitudes and aptitudes can manifest

themselves in forms other then the written word, the term refers to application of variety of tools and techniques

(both testing and non-testing) and aims at assessing a learner's development in areas of learning like :







The scheme is thus a curricular initiative, attempting to shift emphasis from testing to holistic learning. It

aims at creating good citizens possessing sound health, appropriate skills and desirable qualities besides

academic excellence.   It is hoped that this will equip the learners to meet the challenges of life with

confidence and success.

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